Private banks catering to the ultra-wealthy have been slow to adopt digital technology.
There are good reasons for this. Private banking is one of the apex businesses in financial services, along with investment banking and private equity. It is run on relationships.
Private banks offer more than just investment advice for rich people. They provide many services, from estate planning to advice that blends corporate and investment banking; from helping people establish philanthropies to working out sticky disputes among family members.
The complexity of this service, and the demanding nature of super rich clients, means private banking will remain a high-touch business based on trust and privacy.
It is also a business that is slated to enjoy strong growth, especially in Asia. Singapore has become the new Switzerland. Not only is its private-banking industry huge, managing $2.6 trillion of high-net-worth client assets, but it has become the global booking center of choice, with most of its clients hailing from Europe, the Middle East and North America.
Hong Kong is experiencing even faster growth, and its private banking industry manages $1 trillion, as of 2017. This number is expected to double by 2022, according to the Private Wealth Management Association, an industry body. That’s thanks mainly to the rise of mainland Chinese clients.
The old-school client
So private banking’s future looks secure. But which players are likely to win the lion’s share? This is where technology is playing a bigger role.
DigFin spoke with two family offices in Hong Kong. One represents Korean and Chinese families. The head of this office said, “My portfolio managers are old-school guys, and I like things done the old-fashioned way.”
The next generation doesn’t want to talk to RM’sFamily office founder
He’s keen on tech that reduces his paperwork, but doesn’t find much use for apps showing him house views. “Banks are trying to scale and push more information to us, but when they follow up on trades, it’s a person.”
But, he said, “The next generation wants to use apps for data and information, and don’t want to talk to R.M.s.”
The tech-ready client
A second family office represents a Westerner’s personal wealth but is now scaling into a multi-family manager. The director said private banks must now serve information digitally, so he can see it when he needs to, rather than wait for paper statements.
He also welcomes private banks’ R.M.s using data to provide him with useful interpretations of data. But it doesn’t always work: “There’s variation in terms of banks’ capabilities. It takes money and time to implement, and it depends on the quality of the R.M.”
He also notes that digital can worsen a relationship if it saddles him with annoying passwords. If banks are collecting data on clients, they need to find the right balance between U.X. (user experience) and security, because the more data they have, the juicier a target they become for hackers.
But this individual believes the industry is digitizing no matter what: banks must digitize how they gather client information and what they do with it, because the volumes are escalating beyond what humans can manage.
“The regulators, by forcing banks to ask us for more private and personal information, are creating new risks,” he said. Therefore prosaic things like customer onboarding are going to turn into a competitive edge for private banks.
Tech’s contested role
Private bankers like to think their high-touch world is removed from the digital revolution, but that view looks increasingly untenable. Tycoons use mobile phones too; their children may be mobile-native. And structural changes, such as the launch of virtual banks in Hong Kong, open the door to internet giants to compete for wealthy, digital-savvy customers.
Even the most progressive private banks aren’t prepared for this new world, as executives admitted to DigFin. This is especially true when it comes to catering to younger entrepreneurs.
Banks are therefore shifting their I.T. budgets to focus more on client-facing apps and other innovations. Although big players like J.P. Morgan and Goldman Sachs offer digitalized services in the U.S. to the merely rich ($2 million to $10 million, such as tech-industry executives), global banks tend to focus exclusively on the “ultra” segment in Asia.
Therefore there’s not yet a desire to use tech to address the lower rungs of the high-net-worth world in this region. Therefore banks have been slower to roll out digital architecture in Asia.
Moreover, most bankers view tech as “hygiene”, that is, necessary but vanilla. Only a handful view it today as a competitive differentiator.
Examples might include UBS introducing its “health check” service to its app, alerting clients when they veer away from their goals-based allocation; and Credit Suisse partnering with Singapore fintech Canopy to aggregate client portfolios.
Tech favors the big
Rivals concede these provide an advantage, but for how long before they become generic?
The answer may lay in size. Smaller banks will struggle to keep up. Only top-tier banks will have the I.T. budgets and expertise to copy each other’s best ideas. J.P. Morgan execs aren’t shy about touting their bank’s $11 billion I.T. budget.
Other factors are already making the big even bigger, such as regulation that is prompting banks to raise onboarding or transaction fees. As account opening becomes more expensive, Asian clients (notorious for using multiple private banks) may reduce the number of banking relationships.
Now tech is becoming the next factor to spur consolidation. One is about costs. As fees increase, bigger banks are in a better position to absorb these. Another advantage for the big is client data. Universal banks with investment- and corporate-banking arms have the chance to pool more data about clients and their holdings.
Job killer or savior?
Finally, digitalization has big implications for people working at private banks. The relationship managers are the most wary of being replaced by robots.
This fear is probably misplaced. The R.M.’s job is going to change mightily, but private banks will continue to need good R.M.s. The best R.M.s will realize that digitization, if done right, will give them the information they need to sell ideas to clients. Artificial intelligence turns data into pitches.
Few R.M.s are familiar with these tools: they’re sociable, sporty salespeople, not computer nerds. The ones that tap their inner geek are more likely to succeed.
The jobs most at risk, other than operational roles, are analysts and investment professionals, either in the banks or at their asset-management arms. A lot of the vanilla investment ideas and execution will go robo, even at private banks. It’s the non-investment related aspects of private banking (estate planning, etc) that will need human direction.
Lu Global reverses the Lufax story
Lufax began as a P2P and became a wealth manager – in Singapore, it’s the other way around.
Lu Global, a wealth-management fintech in Singapore, has just launched a marketplace to enable its customers to trade the same products they bought on the company’s website.
Kit Wong, CEO at Lu Global, says the company has developed its consumer-facing business and is now selling both funds and structured products.
But it believes some clients want to get out of these positions, particularly structured notes. Instead of having to hold them to maturity, they can now see if other users in the Lu system are willing to buy them (at a discount).
Wong says the firm, which has a capital markets services (CMS) license in Singapore, serves about 300,000 customers. Some are resident in Singapore (where the business can only market to accredited investors), others are from outside, who can be either professional investors or retail.
The biggest segment of investors are mainland Chinese, who already know the Lufax brand, but there are also a lot of Taiwanese and Hongkongers, and a growing number of Southeast Asian users, Wong says.
The peer-to-peer marketplace has just gone live, so it has no volumes to speak of. Lu Global does not take positions in this secondary trading environment – it merely matches its existing customer base in case users want to make trades among themselves.
Lu Global declined to state its assets under management. Wong says the largest number of products are mutual funds, issued by the likes of BlackRock and Pimco – but the biggest volumes are in structured products.
He believes this may have to do with economic and political uncertainty in the region, which is spurring demand for products with known outcomes and terms.
But such products only pay out upon maturity – and the same destabilizing factors may be leading more investors to want to cash out early, even if they do so at a loss. But providing a marketplace not only gives them access to liquidity (assuming there’s a buyer on the other side) but also lets them sell at a better rate.
The launch of this product is a strange parallel to parent Lufax’s journey. Shanghai-based Lufax began as a peer-to-peer marketplace for loans, a business it has since exited, before it became a wealth-management provider.
Lu Global built itself first as a marketplace for wealth products – but now it’s expanding into P2P trading.
Half of Invesco’s China sales now via digital
But as the PRC joint venture learns how to distribute digitally, Invesco remains unsure of robo’s role in Asia.
This week DigFin is highlighting three asset-management firms’ approach to digital distribution, particularly in China. See also strategies from AllianceBernstein and BEA Union Investments. Go here for more insights into digital asset and wealth management.
Invesco is using its joint venture in mainland China, Invesco Great Wall, to figure out digital distribution.
The business now manages about $50 billion of assets, of which about 80% is retail, making it the fourth-largest Sino-foreign fund house in China. Over the past two years, half of retail inflows have come from new digital channels, as opposed to the traditional reliance upon banks, says Andrew Lo, senior managing director and Asia-Pacific CEO of Invesco in Hong Kong.
This is in keeping with a broader trend in the global mutual funds industry, which is shifting from one based on products to one focused more on investment solutions. “There’s an emphasis on designing outcomes for clients, such as through asset allocation or structuring,” to combine types of risk and asset classes.
That’s driven both by client demand as well as market volatility and challenges to active fund houses to deliver alpha (outperformance) on a net-free basis, compared to ultra-affordable passive investments tracking a benchmark.
That’s been an emerging story for the funds industry over the past decade. But on top of that is a new wrinkle: the ability to use technology to speed up operations and to reach more people.
“Technology is now changing the distribution landscape,” Lo said. “In China, it’s having quite an impact on reaching retail investors.”
For now this has been a story unique to mainland China, where existing bank channels (which dominate funds distribution in most Asian markets) are not well developed, and where regulation favors digital disrupters like Ant Financial.
The power of digital was evident in Ant’s success with money-market funds (under an affiliated fund house, Tianhong Asset Management), but it has now extended to equity and quant products onshore – products that Invesco’s J.V. now sells through fintech channels, including Ant, East Money Information, JD.com (Jingdong) and Snowball Finance (Xueqiu).
This has not been straightforward, however. Fund management companies are designed to cater to bank distributors, and are built on old-fashioned tech.
“We learned how to do digital marketing,” Lo said. “It’s very different to traditional distribution. It’s iterative, it changes fast, and you have to listen to customer feedback.” Partnering with digital channels has also required a different sense of product design, and to rebuild the company’s operational process to support round-the-clock digital sales and support.
Lo says the experience will be increasingly relevant as other markets digitalize, although they may need to be tweaked, depending on local regulation, client behavior and distributor demands. “Some things we can learn and apply elsewhere as the world goes digital,” Lo said.
The onshore funds market manages about Rmb14 trillion (almost $2 trillion) in total assets among 135 asset managers authorized to sell to retail clients, of which are 44 Sino-foreign JVs.
But most of these JVs are run by the local partner, with foreign shareholders having less influence. They are limited to stakes no greater than 49%, and local partners are often banks or other powerful institutions. One analyst told DigFin that local fund houses are not particularly bold when it comes to digital channels; and even if they are, the lessons don’t flow to the foreign partner.
But Invesco Great Wall’s case is different. Both Invesco and Great Wall Securities own 49%, with two other shareholders holding another 1% each. Given that Great Wall Securities has its own in-house funds business, it has been willing to let Invesco drive the business. (Beijing has recently permitted J.P. Morgan Asset Management to take a 51% stake in its funds J.V.) Invesco Great Wall is also among the oldest funds JVs in China. It is today led by Shenzhen-based CEO Ken Kang Le.
In China, Invesco is leading the way in digital opportunities. Elsewhere it seems to be running with the rest of the herd. In the U.S. and the U.K., it has made digital acquisitions: Jemstep, a B2B robo-advisor that services U.S. bank distributors, and Inteliflo, a British platform to support financial advisors.
“We haven’t found the right use case in Asia,” Lo said. Onboarding a digital B2B (of B2B2C) platform needs scale, but Asia is fragmented, with each market requiring its own business and compliance needs.
“Digital transformation is still evolving,” Lo said. “My guess is it can be like it is in China, where it’s a real thing that has become a major part of the industry.” But what that looks like elsewhere remains hard to know – or at least hard for justifying a business case.
New China distribution not just for money-market funds
Investors on digital platforms are beginning to look to other products, says BEA Union’s Rex Lo.
This week DigFin is highlighting three asset-management firms’ approach to digital distribution, particularly in China. We will also provide strategies from Invesco and AllianceBernstein. Go here for more insights into digital asset and wealth management.
Retail investors in China accessing funds via digital platforms are beginning to diversify away from money-market funds. That is creating opportunities to push ETFs and active funds, says Rex Lo, managing director for business development at BEA Union Investments.
China’s retail funds industry is mainly about money-market funds (MMFs). The total industry size is Rmb13.2 trillion, or $1.9 trillion, of which MMFs account for 57%, or Rmb7.7 trillion.
Among MMFs, by far the biggest player is Tianhong Asset Management, whose product, Alibaba’s Yuebao fund, is Rmb1.2 trillion in size, or $162 billion – the largest money-market fund in the world.
It’s no surprise then that digital distribution platforms in China mainly cater to MMFs. Lo says until recently, MMFs accounted for about 80% of all funds sold on digital platforms. This is propelled businesses such as Tianhong (which of course is sold via Ant Financial) and a few bank-affiliated fund houses with big MMF products, such as CCB Principal and ICBC Credit Suisse.
But it has made digital distribution of limited interest for fund houses looking to sell equity funds or other actively managed products; for them, traditional distribution via banks has remained the only viable channel.
MMFs: less big
Lo thinks this is changing, however.
The popularity of MMFs lies mainly in the fact that they offered high returns combined with guarantees, real or assumed by investors – assumptions the government has been reluctant to upset.
Yuebao and other MMFs usually invest in non-standardized wealth-management products (themselves supposedly “guaranteed”, with investors assuming a government backstop), that returned 5% to 8% to those managers. They in turn offered investors 5%, an equity-like return on what’s meant to be an ultra-safe and liquid asset class.
Over the past few years, however, Chinese banking and securities regulators have been trying to shift the funds industry onto a footing that respects risk and return, and clamping down on the supply of shadow-banking instruments available to portfolio managers.
“Today MMFs return only a little over 2%, while A shares are doing well,” Lo said. “As demand for money market funds declines, turnover has fallen, so these distributors are now promoting index or active funds.”
In recent months, Lo says, MMFs account for only 70% of sales on digital channels, with ETFs now gaining ground.
Accessing the mainland market
BEA Union is able to sell its Hong Kong-domiciled Asia fixed-income fund to Chinese retail investors through a scheme called MRF, Mutual Recognition of Funds.
This program, which began in 2015, allows fund managers on either side of the border to sell eligible products through a master-agent arrangement. Regulators in mainland China have been slow to approve such funds, however, and there are only seven Hong Kong products available via MRF, including BEA Union’s (and 48 mainland funds available for sale in Hong Kong).
Lo is hoping to take advantage of the shifting fortunes among asset classes to use digital channels to push BEA Union’s bond fund.
Platforms such as Ant Financial are requesting the fund house for more material around equities and active funds management. It’s a big, long-term commitment to investor education – especially for foreign fund managers whose ranking is low on Ant Financial and other digital platforms.
“Domestic investors want familiarity,” Lo acknowledged. “But we continue marketing because we want to be on the platform. Today it’s more for exposure than real [inflows], and ticket sizes are as small as Rmb100 ($14). But if you have 100,000 investors, that becomes a lot of money.”
The intention of this ongoing marketing is to become sufficiently well known among Ant’s users to take advantage when retail investors want to invest overseas.
New ways of doing business
Adding platforms such as Ant to traditional distribution methods has been an eye-opener, Lo says. “They don’t think like a traditional finance company. They’re a fintech, so they’re very responsive and open to new ideas. And they’re independent – they’re not a bank with its own funds J.V. – so there aren’t conflicts of interest.”
Marketing was not the only part of business that had to adjust.
“I was amazed when we began to work with these firms,” Lo said. “Enhancements that would take months to get done in Hong Kong take them a few days. We can learn a lot from working with fintechs.” It’s knowledge that will come in handy as more banks in Hong Kong and Asia add mutual funds to their mobile trading apps, as Standard Chartered did earlier this year.
There are limits, however, to how far a fund house can go selling products on mainland China’s digital platforms.
Those channels are limited to funds from either local licensed retail-facing houses, or offshore products eligible via MRF. The retail funds market in China, at $1.9 trillion, is only a fraction of the total investments industry, which is about $9.7 trillion – but that includes separate licensed businesses for asset managers linked to insurance companies, or to trusts, or to banks. Those businesses for now can’t market to retail or use sell via e-commerce players.
BEA Union is a joint venture formed in 2007 between Bank of East Asia and Germany’s Union Investments. Its initial business model was to service local pension and insurance customers, so its investment expertise has been mainly in Asian fixed income. It has since developed funds in Hong Kong and Asia equities, and its total AUM is now $11.2 billion.
It is the only foreign fund house to establish a wholly owned foreign enterprise (Woofie) in Qianhai (part of Shenzhen), as opposed to Shanghai. This was partly because the authorities in Qianhai were very welcoming, and because Bank of East Asia has a presence in southern China, and the fund house hopes to take advantage of this should cross-border opportunities emerge (under the concept of a “Greater Bay Area”).
This medium-term ambition is another driver of BEA Union’s strategy to build an online brand on Ant Financial and other digital platforms.